2-D and 3-D X-ray Imaging due to refraction for visualizing soft tissue

DDS Center, Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science* Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization** Yamagata University*** Graduate University of Advanced Studies**** National Nagoya Hospital***** Kyushu Institute of Technology******
â—‹Masami Ando* Hiroshi Sugiyama** Anton Maksimenko** Tetsuya Yuasa*** Eiko Hashimoto**** Shu Ichihara***** Kazuyuki Hyodo** Yoshinori Chikaura****** Takao Akatsuka***

X-ray optics and algorithm in order to obtain 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional images of soft tissue has been successfully developed. We would like to first propose an x-ray optics named x-ray dark-field imaging for achieving high contrast 2-dimensional image. The system comprises an asymmetric-cut monochromator-collimator to obtain an extremely highly parallel incident beam onto object and a Laue type angular analyzer (Laa) to only deduce refraction component from the object. By selecting the specific thickness of Laa one can obtain such condition that the forward diffraction has no intensity at W=0 where W means the angular parameter of the Bragg diffraction due to the x-ray dynamical diffraction theory. Using this condition only the refraction component from object can pass through Laa that has a function of angular filtering. Thus soft tissue such as breast cancer, lung cancer and articular cartilage at joint can be successfully visualized with say 10 μm spatial resolution. Furthermore we have attempted at development of an algorithm to be able to reconstruct x-ray image due to refraction. Application of this novel algorithm to DCIS (ductal carcinoma in-situ) breast cancer one can obtain a 3-dimensional arrangement of ductus lactiferi (milk duct), its wall, calcification and its surrounding atmosphere with say 50 μm spatial resolution. The detailed x-ray optics, the spatial resolution and content of the algorithm will be discussed in the presentation.